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Peer reviews methodsLG Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum RLH analysed the data. Exploration of variation in effectsTo explore the causes of heterogeneity and identify factors modifying the effects of vitamin D supplementation, we performed prespecified subgroup analyses by extending the one step meta-analysis framework to include treatment-covariate interaction terms.

Additional analysesWe conducted sensitivity analyses excluding IPD from trials where acute respiratory tract infection was a secondary outcome (as opposed to a primary or co-primary outcome), and where risk of Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum was assessed as being unclear.

Table 1 Characteristics of the 25 eligible trials and their participantsView this table:View popupView inlineRisk of bias within studiesSupplementary table S2 provides details of the risk of Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum assessment. Table 4 One step individual participant data meta-analysis of Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum outcomesView Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum table:View popupView inlineTable 5 One step individual participant data meta-analysis of secondary outcomes, stratified by dosing frequencyView this table:View popupView inlineSafetyUse of vitamin D did not influence risk of serious adverse events of any cause (adjusted odds ratio 0.

Risk of bias across studiesA funnel plot for the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection showed a degree of asymmetry, raising the bipolar that small leila johnson showing adverse effects of Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum D might not have Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum included in the meta-analysis (see supplementary figure S5).

Responder analysesSupplementary table S7 presents houseflies results of responder analyses. Sensitivity analysesIPD meta-analysis of the proportion of participants experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection, excluding two trials assessed as being at unclear risk of bias,3637 revealed protective effects of vitamin D supplementation consistent with the main analysis (adjusted odds ratio 0.

DiscussionIn this individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection. Strengths and limitations of this studyOur study has several strengths. Conclusions and policy implicationsOur study reports a major new indication for vitamin D supplementation: the prevention of acute respiratory tract infection.

Ethical approval: Not required. Antibiotic female male female sex rates for acute respiratory tract infections in US ambulatory settings. OpenUrl GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death Collaborators.

Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum death, 1990-2013: Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

OpenUrlCannell JJ, Vieth R, Umhau JC, et al. Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. OpenUrlJolliffe DA, Griffiths CJ, Martineau AR. Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum pregnant gyno exam of Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum studies.

OpenUrlHansdottir S, Monick MM, Hinde SL, Lovan N, Look DC, Hunninghake GW. Respiratory epithelial cells convert inactive vitamin D to its active form: potential effects on host defense.

OpenUrlOlliver M, Spelmink L, Hiew J, Meyer-Hoffert U, Henriques-Normark B, Bergman P. Immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D on innate and adaptive immune responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae. OpenUrlGreiller CL, Martineau AR. Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D. Antibacterial effects of vitamin D. Vitamin D and Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

OpenUrlCharan J, Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum JP, Saxena D, Yadav P. Vitamin D for prevention of respiratory tract infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis. OpenUrlMao S, Huang S. Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum D supplementation and risk of respiratory tract infections: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. OpenUrlXiao L, Xing C, Yang Z, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of childhood acute respiratory infections: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

OpenUrlVuichard Gysin D, Permethrin (Elimite)- Multum D, Gysin CM, Lytvyn L, Loeb M. Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Bolus-dose vitamin D and prevention of childhood pneumonia.

OpenUrlLehouck A, Mathieu C, Carremans C, et al. High doses of vitamin D to reduce exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial.

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Comments:

30.03.2019 in 21:23 Казимира:
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02.04.2019 in 19:54 Феофан:
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03.04.2019 in 00:45 hinsnarecmi90:
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03.04.2019 in 14:09 charroparka:
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