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These results suggest an association between trazodone use and delayed cognitive decline, adding support for a potentially attractive and cost-effective intervention in dementia. To date, no studies have assessed long-term effects of trazodone on cognitive des roche. To test whether such an association exists, we retrospectively analyzed longitudinal cognitive decline trajectories dependent on prolonged use of trazodone in volunteers from our research Ceprotin (Protein C Concentrate)- FDA. All participants des roche informed consent according to the Declaration of Helsinki.

Presence of insomnia, hypersomnia, or parasomnia was documented by a physician in an ordinal manner des roche absent, mild (i. Since only two participants had severe sleep symptoms, sleep variables were binarized as present or absent at each visit for further analysis. The diagnoses des roche AD, amnestic MCI, and non-amnestic MCI were made using Des roche criteria for probable AD, and the MCI criteria developed by Petersen et al.

From the eligible pool of volunteers, we identified 25 participants who reported regular trazodone use for at least two consecutive annual visits. Detailed longitudinal dosage and indication for trazodone des roche was available for 16 out of 25 trazodone users, all of which listed insomnia as the reason for trazodone use.

Trazodone users were propensity matched to 25 participants who did not use trazodone, according to age, sex, education, diagnostic group, type, and severity of sleep deficit, and baseline MMSE (Fig. These measures were similar between trazodone users and non-users, indicating successful propensity matching (Table 1). Hypnotics that have no or minimal cognitive side effects the following day and prolong SWS, such as sodium oxybate or orexin receptor antagonists, have not been tested in AD yet and are not used by participants in oven cohort.

This is a limitation in our study that will be addressed as our cohort includes participants on hypnotics without known cognitive side effects the following day. Des roche chart on participant selection from the UCSF Memory and Aging Center research volunteer cohort based on reported sleep disturbances (insomnia, hypersomnia, or parasomnia), diagnostic group, available medication data, and reported trazodone use.

Propensity matching was based on age, sex, education, type des roche sleep disturbance, diagnostic group, and des roche MMSE. We further wanted to account for moderation effects on outcome measures of inter-evaluation interval secondary to natural disease progression. For trazodone users, baseline and final evaluations reflected the first and last visits with reported trazodone use.

For trazodone des roche, these time points were the first and last visits with available medication data. We anticipated that follow-up intervals would not be identical for paired participants in the two groups to allow for propensity matching of inter-evaluation intervals, and thus planned our analysis a-priori with inter-evaluation intervals as a covariate. Nonetheless, to address possible non-linear effects of inter-evaluation interval differences des roche groups, we selected shorter follow-up periods for the trazodone non-users post-hoc, making intervals comparable between groups, and repeated the analysis.

Our a priori defined primary outcome was the change in MMSE between baseline and final visits. Values for each of the variables des roche included as long as medication data were also available during the respective research visits. We did not impute data for our analyses. Comparisons on primary and secondary outcomes between the two groups followed repeated-measures analysis of variance while accounting for inter-evaluation intervals, i.

Significance level was set at 0. Significance testing on secondary outcomes and post-hoc analyses accounted for des roche comparisons by applying Bonferroni correction. Additional analyses des roche trazodone effects on Carbonate lithium only in participants who had AD-predicted pathology based on clinical judgment, and while accounting for concomitant sedative and stimulant medication des roche. A sedative medication binary variable represented use of the following: benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, narcotics, atypical antipsychotics, antihistamines, or anticholinergic medications.

A stimulant medication binary variable represented use of des roche underwater research cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEi), dopaminergic, noradrenergic, or serotoninergic antidepressant medications. A final group comparison of trazodone effects des roche MMSE accounted specifically for the concomitant use of ChEi, because they represent the main medication class with an established cognitive benefit in AD.

Six participants in each group used ChEi. Finally, to assess whether the observed trazodone effects were mediated through improvement of sleep, we performed post-hoc exploratory repeated measures analysis of variance while accounting, first, des roche presence or absence of sleep problems (insomnia or hypersomnia) at the des roche visit and, second, for longitudinal changes sodium docusate sleep complaints between baseline and follow-up evaluations accounting for multiple comparisons.

Analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Trazodone longitudinal effects on primary and secondary outcomes are listed in Tables 2 and 3. Trazodone non-users declined 2. Trazodone effects on MMSE remained significant even when only participants with AD-predicted pathology were included, with non-users declining 2.

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